A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Teaching method

Any of a variety of systematic instructional techniques that can be applied to a broad range of academic subjects.

Swirl pattern

The demographics created by CONCURRENT ENROLLMENT, the growing student practice of enrolling in classes at multiple colleges.

American Journal of Education

A periodical edited by education pioneer HENRY BARNARD over a 27-year span from 1855 to 1881, it was the world’s most important education periodical of its day, read by scholars everywhere.

Secondary School Admission Test (SSAT)

A standardized battery of tests used by more than 500 American private, independent elementary and secondary schools to measure student quantitative skills, reading comprehension skills and verbal skills.

Delay of gratification

A not uncommon error of primary and secondary schoolteachers,

John Eliot (1604–1690)

English-born minister, teacher and missionary, who emigrated to New England in 1631.

Residency requirement

In education, a state or local ordinance requiring that students attending free public schools be residents of the school district.

United States Military Academy

The national military college for soldiers at West Point, New York.

Color phonics systems

A method of teaching letter sounds and reading by color-coding vowels and various letter combinations.

Grade

A somewhat confusing term in American education,

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