A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

One of 10 Amendments to the Constitution passed in 1791 and known collectively as the Bill of Rights.

Adams, John (1735–1826) statesman, correspondent

The literary career of John Adams varied in style and substance throughout his life, but as a whole, Adams’s letters represent one of the most important collections of correspondence from this period.

Rote counting

A recital of numbers in order and by memory, with little or no understanding of the meaning of each number.

Children’s intelligence

The ability of children to acquire and retain concrete and abstract knowledge and understanding to deal with new situations and acquire more knowledge.

Attendance area

The geographic area served by a public school.

War on Poverty

A far-reaching program of federal legislation developed in the mid-1960s by the Lyndon B.

Flexner Report

A catalyst in the reform of medical school education in the United States, the Flexner Report was prepared in 1910 by Abraham Flexner (1866–1959) for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Finger play

An early, primary school activity in which children use finger movements, rather than their full bodies, to act out stories and feelings.

Oklahoma

The 46th state admitted to the Union, in 1907.

United States Merchant Marine Academy

A publicly supported, four-year institution of higher education offering maritime, military and engineering programs to train officers for the United States merchant marine and the maritime industry in general.

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