A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Bank Street College of Education

An independent, graduate education college, founded in 1916 in New York City as an experimental center to improve education.

Dewey Decimal (Classification) System

The standard, most widely used method for classifying publications in libraries throughout the English-speaking world.

Military education

Formal and informal schooling provided by the military to service personnel.

National Labor Relations Board v. Catholic Bishop of Chicago

A 1974 ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the National Labor Relations Board lacked the power to intervene ...

Teacher turnover

The ratio of new teachers hired to those departing from a school or college staff.

Racial balance

In public education, a student population whose racial and ethnic makeup reflects the racial makeup of the general community.

Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz (1822–1901)

A founder of the Harvard Annex in 1879 and of its successor institution, the Society for the Collegiate Institution of Women, which was renamed Radcliffe College in 1894.

Word wheel

An entertaining aid for teaching children to read.

Bennett Law

A Wisconsin law passed in 1890 requiring the use of English in teaching specific subjects in all elementary and secondary schools.

America 2000

A national strategy proposed by President George H. W. Bush’s administration to improve the quality of American public schools and make U.S. pupils “first in the world” by the year 2000.

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