A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Idaho

The 43rd state admitted to the Union, in 1890.

Labor Education

For many hundreds of thousands of people around the world, learning through their trade union has been an important, and occasionally, pivotal experience in their development and understanding as workers and citizens.

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project

A kindergarten to twelfth grade mathematics curriculum developed between 1980 and 1986 to give students of average mathematical ability a firm foundation in computational skills.

Sight reading

Usually, a musical term referring to the singing or playing of a composition from its score at first sight.

University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

A unique educational institution, where children study subject matter that relates to and emerges from their needs and interests in the world around them. 

Substitute teacher

A certified teacher who serves as a temporary replacement for a regular member of the faculty. 

Bob Jones University v. United States and Goldsboro Christian Schools Inc. v. United States

A landmark 1983 U.S. Supreme Court decision that extended the principle of racial integration to private schools.

Margaret Mead (1901–1978)

Pioneer American anthropologist, sociologist, social critic and educational theorist whose studies of primitive cultures spawned a variety of conflicting pedagogies in American education.

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)

American revolutionary leader, political philosopher, social reformer, author of the Declaration of Independence, third president of the United States (1801–09), colonial legislator, state governor, founder of the University of Virginia and, unquestionably, the “patron saint of American popular education,” as well as the “author of the American Revolution.”

Registrar

A college or university official charged with officially registering...

Feedback