A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

William Rainey Harper (1856–1906)

Scholar, linguist, educator and founding president of the UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. Born and educated in Ohio, he earned a B.A. at 14 and Ph.D. (at Yale) in Indo-Iranian and Semitic languages just before his 19th birthday.

Functional illiteracy

A vague and often misleading term, usually defined as an inability to read, write or calculate well enough to function as an independent adult.

John Wanamaker (1838–1922)

Businessman, merchant and pioneer in corporationsponsored vocational education.

Hegge-Kirk-Kirk Method

A multisensory, remedial-reading instructional technique developed in the 1970s...

Cooperative learning

A pedagogy developed in the 1970s that breaks classes up into small teams of students, with members of each team responsible for learning and teaching each other a body of material suggested by the teacher.

Education tax credits

Credits that eligible taxpayers may make against federal income taxes for qualified expenses of higher education.

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

A 1988 U.S. Supreme Court decision that gave a Missouri high school principal the right to delete from the student newspaper student articles he deemed inappropriate.

Postgraduate education

An often confusing term usually referring to any formal, higherlevel education following formal graduation from college.

Pedagogy

The art, science and technique of instruction.

Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI)

A monthly compilation of abstracts of doctoral dissertations submitted to University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Feedback