A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Harold A. Taylor (1914–1993)

Canadian- born educator whose 1971 criticism of American education helped provoke a bitter, nonproductive debate over the condition of American higher education.

Carnegie Commission on Higher Education

A 19-member group formed in 1967 by the CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING to study and propose reforms for higher education, which seemed in turmoil in the wake of student rioting that had disrupted campuses across the United States.

Stuttering

A speech disability that blocks the smooth transition from one syllable to another, manifesting itself in either abnormally long pauses or oral stoppages, prolongations of the previous sound or repetitions of the same sound.

Newbery Medal

An award presented annually by the American Library Association for the most distinguished contribution by an American author to American literature for children, published in the United States during the preceding year.

Iowa

The 29th state admitted to the Union, in 1846.

Boston Manufacturing Company of Waltham

An early 19th-century yarn-making factory that organized a new form of apprenticeship training designed for mass production factory work rather than individual craftsmanship.

Honor roll

A periodic listing of students with the highest GRADE POINT averages for the preceding marking period.

Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS)

One of the most widely used batteries of achievement tests for elementary and middle school students.

Objective test

An examination in which scoring is independent of examiner discretion.

Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793–1860)

One of the first major American publishers and a pioneer in the development of children’s textbooks.

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