A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Television

The transmission over wires or through space of sound and images.

College Level Examination Program (CLEP)

A College Entrance Examination Board program of 90-minute computer-administered tests that allows students to earn college credits and advanced placement in a wide range of subjects at 2,900 colleges.

University of Virginia

The first American university to offer a comprehensive curriculum of the arts and sciences that would serve as an archetype for future American universities for much of the 19th century.

National Center for Education Statistics

A branch of the U.S. Department of Education that serves as the U.S.

Mills v. District of Columbia Board of Education

A landmark 1972 class-action suit that established the constitutional right of handicapped children to free public school education.

Media

In the broadest sense, agencies of mass communication, including newspapers, magazines, books, radio, television and films.

Study abroad programs

Any of a variety of programs for American high school or college students, who take an approved leave to pursue studies in foreign schools or colleges and receive appropriate course credits in their home institutions.

Reading comprehension

The ability to infer meaning from a printed passage. There are four levels of reading comprehension that develop sequentially: literal, interpretive, critical and creative.

Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index

A highly controversial test developed in 1999 involving Lego blocks and in-depth interviews to identify such noncognitive skills of culturally and academically deprived college applicants.

Alphabet method

An outmoded method of reading instruction that uses the alphabet and letter combinations as sounding devices with which to build words and phrases.

Feedback