A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities

A U.S. government agency dedicated to supporting the development and growth of the arts and humanities in the United States.

Pupil personnel services

A cluster of nonacademic services designed to help students adjust to and obtain maximum benefits from school.

Selective Service System (SSS)

The U.S. government organization charged with administering universal military conscription.

Braille

A system of reading for the blind, using raised dots as symbols for each letter.

Current events education

An element of the social studies curriculum designed to encourage student interest in local, national and world affairs and their relation to history.

Magic square

A square in which numbers are arranged in rows and columns so that the sum of numbers in each row, column and diagonal is always the same.

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)

The governing body of intercollegiate sports at most major American colleges and universities.

Driver education

Instruction in the techniques of driving automobiles and the study of traffic rules, regulations and safety.

Organizational Learning

Although organizational learning has been a subject of research within management and organizational studies at least since the early 1960s, interest in this concept has grown considerably since the late 1980s.

Cambridge Plan

An 1893 elementary school TRACKING system adopted in Cambridge, Massachusetts...

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