A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Maryland

Seventh of the original 13 states, originally granted (with Delaware) to George Calvert, first baron Baltimore, by Charles I, king of England, in 1632.

New Netherland

The prosperous Dutch colony founded in North America in 1624 in the southeastern corner of present-day New York State and surrendered peacefully to the British 40 years later.

Classroom

The room in which a group of students meet regularly, for an average of 54 minutes at a time in U.S. schools to study the same subject or participate in a common activity.

Off-campus academic alliance

y academic program involving instruction and educative experiences regularly provided by sources off the elementary school, high school or college campus.

Noah Webster (1758–1843)

American patriot, educator, author, lexicographer, lawyer and journalist who, more than any other single American, forever shaped the course of American education after the founding of the Republic.

Deductive approach

A system of reasoning or logic that arrives at specific, logical conclusions on the basis of one or more general premises.

Halfway house

A home or other living facility that serves as a transitional residence for youngsters or adults following their release from an institution and prior to their return to a stable, permanent residence.

Board of regents

A state board of education, which, depending on the state, may be appointed to govern an individual state university...

Substitute teacher

A certified teacher who serves as a temporary replacement for a regular member of the faculty. 

Magazines

In education, periodicals designed for students of all ages for use in and out of the classroom.

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