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Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Spanish America

Those areas of the Americas controlled by Spain during the colonial era, prior to 1800.

Christopher Columbus Langdell (1826–1906)

American lawyer, educator and “father” of modern law school education in the United States.

“Dream” schools

A colloquialism of college applicants that refers to those colleges they would most like...

Future Homemakers of America (FHA)

A national, vocation-oriented organization for high school students enrolled in home economics and related courses.

Orthography

The written or printed representation of the correct or standard spelling of the words and sounds of a language.

Evangelism (evangelicalism)

A relatively modern Anglo-American Protestant Christian proselytization movement that relies on the literal interpretation of the Bible...

Language disorders

Any of a wide variety of impairments in individual communication skills, including impaired reception, speech disorders or neurological dysfunctions that affect the ability to acquire, use and comprehend the spoken and written language.

National Education Association (NEA)

The largest organization for education professionals in the United States, and, indeed, the largest single union, with more than 3.2 million members, including teachers, school administrators, support personnel and other school employees in 12,500 locals.

North Haven Board of Education v. Bell

A 1982 U.S. Supreme Court decision that extended the reach of a law prohibiting gender discrimination in federally funded education programs to school and college employees as well as students.

Censorship

The alteration, suppression or eradication by governmental or other authorities of materials and ideas they deem inappropriate.

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