A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Child benefit theory

A legal doctrine that emerged from a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in church-state conflicts. The cases all involved the spending of public funds to provide services to children enrolled in parochial schools. Although the Court has consistently ruled that government may not use public funds to support a religion or a religious school, under the child benefit principle, government may provide aid to children in religious schools if the aid only benefits the children and not the school or its religion.
As early as 1930, the Court ruled in Cochrane v. Louisiana Board of Education that a Louisiana school district had not violated the Constitution by purchasing textbooks for the teaching of secular subjects and lending them to students in parochial schools. The unanimous decision stated that the books were of benefit only to the students and not the parochial schools or the religions that they espoused. In 1947, the Court issues a similar ruling in Everson v. Board of Education, upholding a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents with state funds for expenses of busing their children to private and religious schools, because the funds were spent directly on students and not on schools. Twenty years later, in Board of Education of Central School District v. Allen, the Court upheld a New York State law requiring local school boards to purchase textbooks and lend them free of charge to students in private and parochial schools. Citing Everson as precedent, the Court ruled that lending textbooks to students was a secular act that “neither advances nor inhibits religion,” because no funds were actually granted to the schools themselves.

Islam

The world’s largest religion, with about 1.3 billion adherents, 97% of whom are in Asia and Africa.

Automated speech

Computer-produced words that simulate the sound of the human voice.

Study abroad programs

Any of a variety of programs for American high school or college students, who take an approved leave to pursue studies in foreign schools or colleges and receive appropriate course credits in their home institutions.

Work study

somewhat confusing term referring to on-campus job programs for needy students to earn part of the costs of tuition and room and board at college or university. 

State University of New York (SUNY)

The world’s largest university, spread over 64 campuses, with 42 two-year community colleges and 22 four-year institutions.

Speech pathology

The study of communication disorders, including vocal, oral, auditory and comprehensive abnormalities. 

Preprimers

A somewhat archaic term referring to a specific level (the current term) in the BASAL READER series.

National Center for Education Statistics

A branch of the U.S. Department of Education that serves as the U.S.

Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919)

Selfmade steel magnate and the first of the great philanthropists in American public education.

Lewis Terman (1877–1956)

American professor of education and psychology, whose seminal work, The Measurement of Intelligence (1916), introduced the Stanford-Binet Test, the first widely used intelligence test, for which he developed the term “Intelligence Quotient,” or “I.Q.”

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