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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

Swiss scientist whose studies of child development altered education by proving that children pass through specific stages of intellectual development that limit what they can learn at each stage.

Dunce

A dull-witted, stupid, incompetent or unmotivated student, whom American teachers routinely punished by ordering the child to sit on an elevated stool...

Methodism

A worldwide Protestant movement and the second largest Protestant religion in the United States, after Baptists.

Accreditation associations

The more than 90 voluntary and involuntary associations responsible for ACCREDITATION of American schools, colleges, graduate schools and professional and occupational programs.

Performance tests

Any of a wide variety of nonverbal, nonwritten tests to gauge the relative intelligence of individuals with impaired literacy skills.

External degree

A college degree awarded to students who successfully complete a prescribed course of study off campus...

Phonograms

Letter groupings that produce the same sound in all the words in which they appear—e.g., all, in ball, call and fall.

Negligence

The injury of another person by an action that “a reasonably prudent person would not have done, or the failure to do that thing which a reasonably prudent person would have done in like or similar circumstances.”

Ezra Stiles (1727–1795)

Connecticutborn scholar, educator, cofounder of the College of Rhode Island (later, Brown University) and president of Yale College during the turbulent Revolutionary War period.

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