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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Bennington College

A private Vermont coeducational college based on the progressive educational philosophy of JOHN DEWEY and his close colleague WILLIAM H. KILPATRICK, who helped found the school in 1932.

William Jennings Bryan (1860–1925)

American lawyer, editor, syndicated columnist, congressman, presidential candidate, secretary of state and a prosecuting attorney in the famed SCOPES MONKEY TRIAL.

Degree

A title usually awarded by colleges and universities to signify successful completion of extended studies in a particular subject or combination of subjects.

Chancellor

Usually the president of a university or institution.

Helen Adams Keller (1880–1968)

American author, lecturer and champion of special education for the blind, deaf and mute.

William Rainey Harper (1856–1906)

Scholar, linguist, educator and founding president of the UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. Born and educated in Ohio, he earned a B.A. at 14 and Ph.D. (at Yale) in Indo-Iranian and Semitic languages just before his 19th birthday.

University of the South

The first university founded in the South in response to the inclusion of abolitionism as a centrality in the teaching of religion, history and political science in northern universities.

Social studies

An amorphous, interdisciplinary course of studies that includes history, geography, political science, civics, economics, culture and sociology.

Adams, Abigail (1744–1818) correspondent

Abigail Smith Adams was an energetic letter writer, an astute observer of politics and diplomacy, and the wife of John Adams, the second president of the United States.

John Swett (1830–1913)

American educator and “father” of public school education in California. 

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