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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Colorado

The 38th state, admitted to the Union on the nation’s 100th anniversary.

Exchange program

Any of a variety of programs involving the temporary transfer of a student or teacher to a school, college or university in another country.

Curriculum development

The design of an educational program that fulfills the educational goals of the institution.

Poverty

In education, one of the most debilitating factors in a student’s pursuit of academic achievement.

School visits

Visits by parents and their children to evaluate a school and determine whether it is appropriate for one or more of their children.

African Americans

Americans of African Negroid descent, comprising 12.1% of the American population in 2000. Displaced by Hispanics as the largest American minority, the African-American population grew 21.5% from 1990 to 2000 to about 34.7 million, compared to a growth rate of more than 62% for Hispanics, whose total reached 35.3 million.

Gaudeamus igitur

The first words of a university-students’ song, variously said to have been composed as early as 1267...

National Institute of Education (NIE)

A now-defunct division of the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, created by Congress in 1972 as an agency for educational...

Performance contractor

An entrepreneurial organization or outside agency hired by public schools and school districts to improve student achievement in one or more specific areas.

Adams, John (1735–1826) statesman, correspondent

The literary career of John Adams varied in style and substance throughout his life, but as a whole, Adams’s letters represent one of the most important collections of correspondence from this period.

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