A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Bachelor’s degree

A certification by an institution of successful completion of four years of college academics.

Reconstructionism

A philosophy of education based on social reform and the spread and preservation of democracy as essential elements of formal schooling.

Problem-raising method

A pedagogical approach to instruction in history, social studies, science and a variety of other subjects.

College savings plan

A financial vehicle that permits accumulation of tax-deferred savings for eventual payment of college costs.

International Baccalaureate (IB)

A specialized secondary school diploma valid internationally as evidence of satisfactory completion of secondary school education.

The Paideia Proposal

One of the most farreaching curriculum reform schemes developed in the late 20th century for public elementary and secondary schools.

Entry behavior

The knowledge, skills and behavioral and emotional characteristics that a student brings when beginning a school or class.

Wider Benefits of Adult Education

This article focuses on the wider benefits of adult learning, covering a mix of personal and social (external) effects. The emphasis is on the effects of adult learning on health and civic engagement.

Raw score

The actual number of correct answers on a test, unadjusted and unconverted to conventional grading systems or to relative positions in a distribution curve.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

One of the world’s premier research universities, founded in Cambridge by American geologist William Barton Rogers (1804– 82) in 1861 as the first school devoted to industrial science.

Feedback