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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Boston Latin School

The first school founded in the American colonies.

Black colleges

Institutions originally established for the education of African Americans. Originally, the products of northern white abolitionist missionaries, the first three black colleges were founded before the Civil War...

Magazines

In education, periodicals designed for students of all ages for use in and out of the classroom.

Jared Sparks (1789–1866)

American educator, author and historian, responsible for introducing history as a standard element of the American curriculum.

Graduation

The formal completion of a prescribed course of study at an educational institution, as attested by the award of a certificate, diploma and/or degree.

University of Edinburgh

A Scottish institution of higher learning founded in 1583 and the alma mater of many leading educators in the American colonies.

Itinerant teacher

A specially trained instructor who works in more than one school, providing special educational services to students and teachers.

State department of education

A state agency charged with certification of schools, certification of teachers, distributing federal and state funds to school districts and educational institutions, recommending legislation affecting education to the governor and state legislature and enforcing state education laws.

Philosophy of education

The overall pedagogical doctrine governing an institution’s teaching methods, as opposed to EDUCATIONAL GOALS, which govern the ends those methods are designed to achieve.

Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT)

A standardized test administered twice yearly by the American College Testing Program and required for admission to all accredited American medical schools.

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