A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (PARC decision)

A landmark 1971 U.S. Supreme Court case that extended universal public education laws to retarded children as a constitutional right.

Ingraham v. Wright

A 1977 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that spanking by school authorities did not violate the constitutional rights of students.

Busing

The free transportation of school children to and from their homes and their school and school activities.

Educational warranty

A special certificate issued to high school graduates assuring prospective employers that the bearer has the basic skills needed to enter the workforce.

Longitudinal study

A long-term research project that measures certain characteristics of a specific group of subjects over many years.

Comparative education

A relatively limited field of study within the graduate education curriculum that deals with comparison in formal education systems in different countries and societies.

Asa Turner (1799–1885)

American clergyman, educator and cofounder of the famed “YALE BAND,” which was instrumental in bringing public education and colleges to the West. Born in Massachusetts, he attended and was ordained at Yale in 1830.

National Security Education Program

A federally financed program established in December 1991 to encourage study of largely overlooked languages and countries (usually in developing nations) of strategic importance to the United States and to attract skilled operatives to agencies involved in national security affairs.

Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922)

Inventor and pioneer educator of the deaf. Bell’s inventions of the telephone and other apparatuses were incidental and avocational outgrowths of his work in education.

Safety education

An amorphous form of instruction relating to accident prevention and minimization at all levels of human activity, ranging from play at preschool and school to vehicle operation to activities in the workplace.

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