A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Conditioning theory of learning

A theory of learning developed by Russian Nobel physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov...

Upward Bound

A federally supported program to supplement the secondary school education of the socioeconomically deprived and prepare them for college.

Itinerant teacher

A specially trained instructor who works in more than one school, providing special educational services to students and teachers.

Gesell School Readiness Screening Test

A widely used method of determining whether to admit children to kindergarten or allow them to spend another year in preschool.

Minnesota

The 32nd state to join the Union, in 1858, and from its origins one of the states most dedicated to high-quality public education.

White citizens’ councils

Ad hoc groups of townspeople formed throughout the South in the 1950s to resist racial desegregation of schools and what they called the “mongrelization” of the Caucasian race.

Children’s rights

The privileges, protection and other entitlements granted to children under the law. Because of their status as dependents, minors traditionally have had few, if any, legal “rights.”

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

A landmark federal law that prohibited discrimination on the basis of physical handicaps by any public or private organization receiving federal funds, directly or indirectly, and mandated the elimination of architectural barriers that interfered with access by the handicapped to a publicly used building.

Searches of students

In education, the physical inspection by school authorities of the person and property of minor students and the equipment they use.

Attendance area

The geographic area served by a public school.

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