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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Briggs v. Elliot

One of four separate cases consolidated by the U.S. Supreme Court into the single landmark case known as BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA.

Performing arts education

The formal study of instrumental music, drama and ballet.

Horace Mann Bond (1904–1972)

African-American educator and pioneer researcher in black educational history.

Problem-raising method

A pedagogical approach to instruction in history, social studies, science and a variety of other subjects.

College-operated schools

A peculiarly American group of high schools operated by and within a college or university.

Career ladders for teachers

A vertical scale of teacher job classifications offering increased pay, authority and professional recognition as the teacher progresses from trainee or apprenticeship level to master teacher.

Clerk-of-the-works

An employee or consultant paid by an institution or school district to enforce contract specifications on construction projects.

Finger spelling

A system of communication for the deaf, using finger configurations to represent each letter of the alphabet...

Everson v. Board of Education

A landmark 1946 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that the Ewing Township (New Jersey) Board of Education...

Manual alphabet

The representation of each letter of the alphabet by a specific configuration of the fingers and hand.

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