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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746–1827)

Swiss educational reformer whose pedagogy revolutionized education in western Europe and the United States.

Wright v. Regan

A landmark, 1982 decision by the Circuit Court of Appeals for Washington, D.C., prohibiting the federal government from granting tax-exempt status to any private school that practices racial discrimination.

Committee on College Entrance Requirements

A NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION group formed in 1895 to develop a standardized high school curriculum to prepare students for college.

New Netherland

The prosperous Dutch colony founded in North America in 1624 in the southeastern corner of present-day New York State and surrendered peacefully to the British 40 years later.

Pupil accounting

An individual and cumulative record-keeping system for all student...

Asian Americans

Americans of Asian origin or descent. An American missionary brought the first three recorded arrivals from China in the late 1840s.

Third Plenary Council of Baltimore

An 1884 convention of Roman Catholic leaders in the United States to establish a unified system of education for Roman Catholic children.

Deschooling

A philosophy of education enunciated by Roman Catholic educator and cleric Ivan Illich (1926– ) in his 1971 work Deschooling Society.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions

The first national organization to emerge from the evangelical fervor that swept the United States during the halfcentury following the Revolutionary War.

Psychologist (school)

A full- or part-time certified professional with a doctoral degree in psychology and, where required, licensed by state or professional accrediting bodies to test and evaluate student intellectual, emotional and social development and diagnose educational disabilities.

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