A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

The American Instructor

By far the most widely used of the thousands of popular examples of didactic literature that flooded the American colonies during the 18th century.

Research university

A university whose overall educational goals include development of new knowledge as well as the teaching of existing knowledge.

Interlibrary loan system

Any cooperative arrangement between two or more libraries whereby members of one library may automatically borrow publications from other libraries in the cooperating group.

George Washington (1732–1799)

First president of the United States and an advocate of the much-debated principle of the need for universal education in a society of self-governing people. 

Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition

An international exhibition organized in Philadelphia in 1876 to mark the centennial of the Declaration of Independence.

Bennington College

A private Vermont coeducational college based on the progressive educational philosophy of JOHN DEWEY and his close colleague WILLIAM H. KILPATRICK, who helped found the school in 1932.

Orff Method

A method of beginning music and instrumental instruction based on paralleling the evolution of music itself at the beginning of history, that is, by studying the development of rhythm, followed by development of melody, followed by development of harmony.

Mental philosophy

One of the three Aristotelian divisions of philosophy, which 17thand 18th-century educators in England and the American colonies used as a convenient approach to teaching philosophy in secondary schools and colleges.

Rules and regulations

A codification ofpermissible and impermissible student behaviorand academic effort in a school or collegeand the consequent rewards and discipline forsuch behavior. 

Noah Webster (1758–1843)

American patriot, educator, author, lexicographer, lawyer and journalist who, more than any other single American, forever shaped the course of American education after the founding of the Republic.

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