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California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Agricultural education

A complex curriculum whose roots lie in the training of farmers and future farmers to obtain maximum productivity from their land and maximum profits from their products at market.

Autodidact

One who educates himself by studying all or most of a conventional curriculum independently.

Dependents’ schools

A system of elementary and secondary schools maintained by the federal government for minor dependents of U.S. military and civilian personnel stationed overseas.

Parent-teacher conference

A one-to-one, private meeting between a student’s parent and teacher to discuss the student’s academic, social and behavioral progress and problems in class and school.

Character development

A broad area of education designed to teach students self-discipline, responsibility and good citizenship.

Abacus

An ancient device using large beads as units to calculate and to teach calculating.

Retention

The forced repetition, for whatever reason, of a school year; the opposite of promotion.

Save harmless

A legal term referring to theindemnification that many school districts andstates afford to teachers in the performance oftheir stated duties.

Grade level

One of the numbered classes, ranging from first grade to twelfth grade, in American elementary and secondary schools. Sometimes called by the English term “form,”

AmeriCorps

A national service organization in which volunteers are rewarded with credits of nearly $5,000 a year toward their college or university education.

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