A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM)

A wide-ranging group of intelligence tests that measure academic skills essential for school, such as learning, problem-solving and responding to new situations. Designed as a contrast to I.Q. tests that measure genetically predetermined intelligence, CTMM measures five academic skills: logical reasoning, spatial relationships, numerical reasoning, verbal concepts and memory. CTMM tests yield a score for each skill, an overall score for nonlanguage skills, a second overall score for language skills and a total score for the entire test. Separate tests are given for each of six school-grade ranges, from kindergarten through senior year of college. A short version of the test—the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity—is also available.

Junior college

A two-year, postsecondary institution of higher education with programs leading to ASSOCIATE DEGREES in the arts and sciences.

United States Military Academy

The national military college for soldiers at West Point, New York.

Integration

A term with multiple meanings in education, but first used in the 1950s to connote the mixing of blacks and whites in schools in compliance with the landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in BROWN V.

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

The world’s largest philanthropic organization and America’s largest privately funded FOUNDATION, with more than $60 billion in assets in 2006.

National Diffusion Network (NDN)

A U.S. Department of Education program established in 1974 for nationwide implementation of exemplary education schemes.

John Harvard (1607–1638)

Englishborn philanthropist and, perhaps, minister, whose bequest ensured the survival of what was later renamed HARVARD COLLEGE.

Emma Hart Willard (1787–1870)

America’s first woman educator and founder of the first school for women that offered a curriculum equivalent to that of men’s academies and colleges.

First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

The first of 10 Amendments added to the CONSTITUTION in 1791 and collectively known as the Bill of Rights.

Audiolingual instruction

A method of teaching that depends exclusively on speech and visual demonstration, with no written materials.

Withdrawal

A vague term, which, in education, can mean everything from a student’s transfer to another school, to a leave due to illness, forced expulsion or dropping out. 

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