A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Group counseling (guidance)

The simultaneous dispensing of universally applicable advice by a trained professional to groups of usually no more than 10 students.

Set induction

Educational jargon equivalent to the show business term warm-up—the cultivation of audience (or student) receptiveness for a forthcoming unit of particularly complex work, a new concept, a field trip or any other variation of the usual classroom routine.

State education laws

The state laws that, at a minimum, legislate the duration of compulsory education, attendance quotas, graduation requirements, teacher certification and funding procedures.

Cooking

At the early education level, a useful pedagogical tool to teach measurement, reading, writing, arithmetic, following directions and creativity.

Distributive education

A vocational education program for retailing, started in the late 1930s with government grants for training teachers to instruct skills needed in distribution (now called marketing) of retail goods.

Alumni / alumnae magazines

Professionally produced, glossy magazines produced by secondary schools, colleges and universities for distribution to alumni.

Dame school

A colonial-era elementary school operated for a modest fee by a neighborhood mother in her kitchen.

Carleton Wolsey Washburne (1889–1968)

American educator who pioneered the development of preschool education, programmed instruction, ability-graded children’s books and advanced teacher training. 

Field trip

Teacher-led student excursions to sites such as museums, historical restorations, government buildings...

Solomon Schechter (1847–1915)

Romanian- born religious leader and educator whose influence spanned the Middle East, eastern and western Europe and, eventually, the United States, where he became the leader of Conservative Judaism.

Feedback