A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Feinberg Law

A 1949 New York State law allowing the state’s Board of Regents to compile a list of organizations it deemed subversive...

Reformatory

A custodial institution designed to reeducate and rehabilitate individuals deemed deviant or dependent and in need of spiritual, educational and physical care.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

The landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision that outlawed racial segregation in American public schools and signaled the end to racial segregation in all public facilities in the United States.

Education reform

Any change or proposed change in the existing methods or content of instruction in schools and colleges.

Mississippi

The 20th state to enter the Union, in 1817, and, historically, a state with the lowest educational standards in the United States.

National Security Education Program

A federally financed program established in December 1991 to encourage study of largely overlooked languages and countries (usually in developing nations) of strategic importance to the United States and to attract skilled operatives to agencies involved in national security affairs.

Correspondence school

Any organization that provides CORRESPONDENCE COURSES.

Wolman v. Walter

A complex 1977 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of an Ohio law authorizing various forms of state aid to private schools.

Eleazar Wheelock (1711–1779)

American religious leader and educator who founded the town of Hanover, New Hampshire, and Dartmouth College.

Adaptive programming

The sequential ordering of self-teaching instructional materials to maximize learning and retention of learned materials.

Feedback