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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

One of 10 Amendments to the Constitution passed in 1791 and known collectively as the Bill of Rights.

Language laboratory

A specially equipped school or library room for teaching foreign languages.

School design

The external and internal architecture of educational institutions.

Mount Holyoke College

The world’s first women’s college, founded in South Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1837 by MARY LYON.

Herbartianism

The concepts of German philosopher/educator Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841)...

Children’s Aid Society

An organization founded in 1853 by philanthropist Charles Loring Brace (1826–90) to provide homeless children in New York City with a lodging house and training in industrial skills.

Health education

The formal classroom instruction of children, from kindergarten through high school, in matters concerning the care of their bodies, dietary and sleep needs, eating disorders, birth, death and dying, suicide, disease prevention...

Maine

The 23rd state admitted to the Union, in 1820.

Campus visits

Organized tours of and overnight stays at college and university campuses by prospective applicants. Almost all college and universities offer guided tours to the public.

Radio

The wireless transmission of sound, or “wireless telephone,” as it was first called, following its invention in Europe in the late 19th century.

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