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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Carroll D. Wright (1840–1909)

American educator and author of the first definitive government study of American vocational education. Born in New Hampshire, he became a schoolteacher to pay for his training in law. 

Rockefeller University

A unique graduate university in New York City, founded by oil magnate John D.

Normal school

An archaic, early name for teacher training schools.

Student government

Any school-sanctioned program that extends to students the opportunity to control some aspect of their lives at school.

Center for Research Libraries

Chicago-based consortium of several hundred university libraries that make their collections available to scholars and researchers through interlibrary loan services.

Wood v. Strickland

A 1975 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that held a school board member liable for damages for violating the constitutional rights of students.

National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS)

A small but influential nonprofit consulting and research center that has engineered major administrative and financial reforms in several dozen state college and university systems.

Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

A two- or four-year program in which young men and women may earn commissions in the United States Air Force while attending college.

Battered-child syndrome

A range of injuries symptomatic of physical abuse by a parent or surrogate, including fractures, hematomas (black-and-blue marks), skin tears and injuries, poor hygiene or evident malnutrition.

John R. Mott (1865–1955)

Organizer and long-time leader of the STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS (SVM), which recruited thousands of American college students to serve as Christian missionaries in southeast Asia, China, Japan, Africa and Latin America.

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