A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Fernald Method

A remedial reading instruction method that relies on as many of the child’s senses as possible to reinforce learning.

Mortimer J. Adler (1902–2001)

Educator, philosopher, author, editor, whose Paideia Proposal in 1982 called for massive reforms of American elementary and secondary school curricula and teaching methods.

Adult Education Overview

In the introduction to the second edition of the International Encyclopedia of Adult Education and Training, the editor points out that adult education is heuristic, multidisciplinary, eclectic in orientation, and that its knowledge base is diffuse and incomplete (Tuijnman, 1996, xv).

Grammar

The study of the structural and syntactical rules of a language.

Social service movement

A nationwide thrust to deliver a variety of social, psychological and health services to socioeconomically deprived children in inner-city schools across the United States.

Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS)

One of the most widely used batteries of achievement tests for elementary and middle school students.

New York City

One of the world’s leading commercial, financial, cultural and educational centers, with more colleges and universities than any other city in the world.

Elementary certificate

A special certificate issued by the Dalcroze School of Music in New York City...

Hearing impaired

Any person with a hearing loss, whether mild, moderate, severe or profound.

Industrial Arts Curriculum Project (IACP)

A project that developed several WORLD OF WORK courses designed to introduce students to on-the-job realities of adult life.

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