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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Charles R. Van Hise (1857–1918)

American geologist, educator and university president who expanded the role of the public university to include adult education and service to the state.

Odyssey: A Curriculum for Thinking

An educational approach that combines exercises in problem solving and reasoning with direct instruction.

Richard Allestree (1619–1681)

Professor of divinity at Christ Church, Oxford University, England, provost of Eton College and author of popular devotional literature which, in the absence of schools in the wilderness of North America, became the essential primers for educating colonial children.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778)

Swiss-born philosopher, author, political scientist,musicologist and one of the most influentialminds in the so-called Age of Enlightenment.

State superintendent of education

The highest ranking educational officer in a state, with responsibilities as the chief executive officer of the state board of education and the chief administrative officer of the state department of education.

Josiah Strong (1847–1916)

American religious leader who tried to unite American Protestant churches in a crusade to Christianize the United States, using education and the nation’s schools as primary vehicles.

Barrier-free campus

A school or campus conforming to the federal REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 and the AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990 and to state and local regulations mandating free access to education and employment facilities for handicapped students, faculty and employees.

Channel One

A privately owned television network that began beaming news and current events programs to 8 million students in 12,000 schools in 47 states in 1990.

Google Print Library Project

An on-line library providing access to all the information in millions of books in digital form. The library is an ongoing,

Master teacher

A formal title developed in the 1950s to differentiate and reward teachers who have superior classroom skills and who have also made outstanding contributions to their school.

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