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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

New Mexico

The 47th state to join the Union, in 1912.

Library

A specially housed collection of books, periodicals, manuscripts, nonprint media such as recordings and films and a wide variety of other materials for general or restricted public use but seldom offered for sale.

Administrative theory

Any of a wide variety of assumptions designed to predict individual behavior within an organization such as a school.

Phonograms

Letter groupings that produce the same sound in all the words in which they appear—e.g., all, in ball, call and fall.

Yeshiva (or, yeshivah)

In American education, a generic term referring to any of a variety of Jewish day schools, depending on their sectarian sponsorship. 

Student teaching

A program akin to an apprenticeship in teaching, during the last year of college-level teacher training.

Parts of speech

Categories of words, grouped according to their functions in phrases and sentences.

Nursing

re and treatment of the sick— until the years following World War II, one of the few “professions” (along with teaching) open to women.

Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition

An international exhibition organized in Philadelphia in 1876 to mark the centennial of the Declaration of Independence.

Leadership

The ability to direct and influence the intellectual, emotional and physical behavior of others.

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