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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Ezekiel Cheever (1614–1708)

The most renowned of the early colonial teachers and the first to make teaching a full-time job rather than part-time adjunct of ministerial duties.

Graduation

The formal completion of a prescribed course of study at an educational institution, as attested by the award of a certificate, diploma and/or degree.

Performance contractor

An entrepreneurial organization or outside agency hired by public schools and school districts to improve student achievement in one or more specific areas.

Cooperative vocational education

A program of vocational education in which private industry and local colleges cooperate to provide students with a combination of classroom and on-the-job training.

Gender discrimination

In education, the denial of equal educational opportunities because of a student’s sex.

Ira D. Sankey (1840–1908)

American evangelist, hymn writer and singer whose inspiring musical offerings transformed a partnership with fellow evangelist DWIGHT L. 

Electric chalkboard

A device that projects images from transparencies onto screens in the front of the classroom and allows the teacher...

Child study movement

A massive effort by educators and psychologists who in the 1890s began to document all elements of CHILD DEVELOPMENT.

Capitation grant

In the case of educational institutions, sums of money given by a government agency or private foundation according to the number of individual students enrolled in the particular recipient institution or district.

Georgia

One of the original 13 states and the fourth to join the Union, in 1788. Georgia planned to build state-supported schools in each county when it drafted its first constitution in 1777,

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