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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

A unique, quasipublic philanthropic organization founded in England in 1701 to strengthen Anglican Christianity and basic education in the American colonies.

Summer jobs

For full-time students, paid employment during school or college summer vacation months.

University Microfilms

A widely used commercial printer of doctoral dissertations and other scholarly works, in accordance with the standard presentations and formats for such documents as required by almost all American colleges and universities.

Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO)

A local, volunteer association of parents and teachers, operating exactly as a Parent-Teacher Association, but unaffiliated with the NATIONAL CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS.

Classical realism

A philosophy which holds that all truths—all “realities”—may be found in the great works that have survived throughout history and become eternal.

James Maury (1718–1769)

Eighteenthcentury Virginia minister and teacher whose students included, among others, Thomas Jefferson, who enrolled in Maury’s “log school” in 1758, at the age of 14.

Marking systems

Any of a variety of graded scales to assess and rank the academic achievement of students.

Transfer students

College students who begin their postsecondary school higher education studies at one institution before enrolling at one or more subsequent institutions to obtain their bachelor’s degrees.

Leadership

The ability to direct and influence the intellectual, emotional and physical behavior of others.

Media center

The relatively new appellation of the traditional school or college library.

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