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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Parent effectiveness training (PET)

The education of parents in effective techniques of raising their children, or “parenting.”

African-American education

The schooling of American blacks, both within and without the mainstream educational establishment. Historically, the quality of education received by African Americans has been far below that offered whites.

Francis Donald Pastorius (1631–1720?)

Attorney, author, noted early colonial educator and founder of the community of Germantown, Pennsylvania. Born and educated in Germany, he practiced law there until a chance meeting in 1682 with William Penn, who interested him in the American colonies.

Teacher burnout

A stress/fatigue syndrome that often leads to sleeplessness, moodiness, jumpiness, irritability and unprovoked anger toward students, colleagues and family members.

Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education Support (DANTES)

A broad U.S. Department of Defense program that provides support for traditional and nontraditional educational activities for all U.S. military personnel.

John D. Pierce (1797–1882)

American educator responsible for founding Michigan’s system of public education.

Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899–1977)

American educator, educational innovator and champion of the traditional classical education based on careful study of the great books of the Western tradition.

Charles R. Van Hise (1857–1918)

American geologist, educator and university president who expanded the role of the public university to include adult education and service to the state.

Semester

One-half of an academic year, usually lasting 15 to 18 weeks.

Completion test

A commonly used type of objective test which asks the student to “fill in the blank” by providing a missing word or phrase in an incomplete sentence.

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