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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Overview of Lifelong Learning Policies and Systems

Since lifelong learning systems embodying various policies are emerging in a variety of unique contexts, they represent very different perspectives from country to country.

John Brinsley (d. 1633)

English preacherschoolmaster and author of A Consolation for Our Grammar Schooles (1622), which became a standard pedagogical guide for Puritan schoolmasters in the colonies.

Petty school

The most elementary level of education in the colonial era in England and the American colonies.

Dissertation

An extended scholarly work, usually longer than 10,000 words, based on independent research, written in fulfillment of requirements for a doctoral or other advanced degree.

Overplacement

The placement of a student in a class or grade with academic...

Bread Loaf School of English

A degreegranting graduate summer school of literature studies and writing courses for teachers of English.

Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919)

Selfmade steel magnate and the first of the great philanthropists in American public education.

International Year of the Child

An ambitious international effort to improve the lot of children everywhere on the planet.

Stuttering

A speech disability that blocks the smooth transition from one syllable to another, manifesting itself in either abnormally long pauses or oral stoppages, prolongations of the previous sound or repetitions of the same sound.

Project Physics

A Harvard University effort that produced a new type of secondary school physics course to accommodate the skills of, and attract a larger number of, average high school students.

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