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Bottom-up model of reading

A system of reading instruction based on the theory that the learning of reading takes place by piecing together small parts, or phonic sounds, to form, first, a letter sound, and, eventually, a word sound. Learning takes place, in other words, from the bottom up, from sound to symbol to meaning. The model is in contrast to the TOP-DOWN MODEL, in which children learn entire words by sight, by the distinctive shape of the word, rather than individual letters. Such children must then gradually take the word apart to learn each letter and its sound. Experienced teachers recognize, however, that all children use both methods to some degree. Some children learn sight words more easily than others and instinctively distinguish words by the total shape of the word—pizza, for example, as opposed to cat. Other children, however, seem unable to distinguish entire words when first learning to read and are almost totally dependent on “sounding out” the word, letter by letter. (See also PHONICS; WHOLE LANGUAGE.)

Current events education

An element of the social studies curriculum designed to encourage student interest in local, national and world affairs and their relation to history.

American Bible Society

An organization formed in 1816 to promote the distribution of Bibles and other religious publications—a task it continues to perform to this day.

Portable classrooms

A temporary classroom housed in the shell of a standard, manufactured mobile home that can be transported on flatbed truck trailers from site to site.

Oregon

The 33rd state admitted to the Union, in 1859.

Comprehensive Child Development Act

An act passed by Congress, but vetoed by President Richard M. Nixon in 1971.

Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

Swiss scientist whose studies of child development altered education by proving that children pass through specific stages of intellectual development that limit what they can learn at each stage.

Mary Steichen Calderone (1904–1998)

Quaker physician, pioneer crusader in sex education and birth control and cofounder of SIECUS, the Sex Information and Education Council of the United States.

Henry Peter Brougham, first Baron Brougham and Vaux (Lord) (1778–1868)

Scottish-born jurist, political leader and social and educational reformer whose innovations revolutionized British and, eventually, American education.

Leadership

The ability to direct and influence the intellectual, emotional and physical behavior of others.

Michigan

The 26th state to join the Union, in 1837, and, from its earliest days, a state that has placed particular emphasis on education.

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