A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

Tenth Amendment

That section of the Constitution that effectively vests control over education inter alia to the states.

School certification

The legal approval to operate a school.

National Collegiate Athletic Association v. University of Oklahoma

A 1984 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) had violated federal antitrust law by preventing individual colleges and universities from negotiating the rights to football telecasts.

Joseph Emerson (1777–1833)

American clergyman and first educator to expand women’s academic education beyond the traditional “ornamental” and “domestic” arts.

Missouri

The 24th state to join the Union, in 1821.

The Political Economy of Adult Education

The expansion of post-compulsory education and training has been one of the most striking recent changes in the education systems of more developed societies.

Julia Clifford Lathrop (1858–1932)

American social reformer, champion of child labor laws and first chief of the U.S. Department of Labor Children’s Bureau when it opened in 1912.

United States Department of Defense

An executive branch of the government charged with directing and controlling the American armed forces and assisting the president in safeguarding the nation’s security. 

Eleazar Wheelock (1711–1779)

American religious leader and educator who founded the town of Hanover, New Hampshire, and Dartmouth College.

Classroom

The room in which a group of students meet regularly, for an average of 54 minutes at a time in U.S. schools to study the same subject or participate in a common activity.

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