A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

Connectionism theory

A theory of learning developed by Columbia University educator and psychology professor EDWARD L. THORNDIKE.

Kenneth B. Clark (1914–2005)

African-American social scientist, psychologist and educational reformer, whose pioneer research in education proved crucial to the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1954 decision to outlaw school segregation.

First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

The first of 10 Amendments added to the CONSTITUTION in 1791 and collectively known as the Bill of Rights.

Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE)

A U.S. Department of Education division created in 1972

Death education

The formal or informal study of death and dying and its effects on survivors.

Dropouts

Students who withdraw from school or college without completing graduation requirements for reasons other than enrolling in another school or college.

Absenteeism

A term referring to the physical absence from class or school by students.

Rewriting the History of Adult Education: The Search for Narrative Structures

In collections of university libraries worldwide, one can locate relatively small sections of volumes pertinent to the history of adult education.

Black codes

Two sets of laws enacted by southern states in the 19th century, abrogating the individual liberties of African Americans.

Robertson v. Princeton

A landmark lawsuit in which the heirs of one of PRINCETON UNIVERSITY’s major benefactors sought to obtain control of the donated funds to ensure that the university honored the wishes of its benefactor.

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