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Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

Astronomy

The scientific study of celestial space. Long a required part of the elementary and secondary school and college curricula in the United States...

Stanine

An interval on a scale of nine intervals.An acronym of the words standard nine, astanine scale uses a mean of 5.00, with a standarddeviation of plus or minus 1.96. A farbroader, and therefore less precise, method ofmeasuring a distribution of scores than PERCENTILES,the stanine distribution was developedduring World War II by the Army Air Force PsychologyProgram as a broad method of groupingtest scores into relatively comparablecategories.

Children’s rights

The privileges, protection and other entitlements granted to children under the law. Because of their status as dependents, minors traditionally have had few, if any, legal “rights.”

School songs

Those melodies and lyrics that, like SCHOOL COLORS, are particularly associated with and symbolic of specific schools and colleges.

Education Development Center, Inc.

A publicly sponsored, nonprofit organization that, among other services...

Freedom schools

A group of widely scattered secondary schools established for black children in various southern communities in the 1950s, during the struggle for racial equality.

Hispanic Americans

The Spanish-speaking population of the United States. Overwhelmingly made up of persons from the Americas, Hispanics became the largest minority in the United States at the end of the 20th century, increasing more than 80% over the last two decades to a total of 40 million by 2003—more than 13.7% of the United States population.

National Youth Administration

A federal government program established in 1935 by executive order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to provide funds for part-time employment of needy students, aged 16 to 24, with the intent of helping them remain in school.

Horace Mann (1796–1859)

Educator, legislator, attorney and generally recognized as the “father of public education” in the United States.

Mirror reading

A disability that causes the individual to perceive some letters ...

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