Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

Franklin’s Academy

The academy founded in Philadelphia, in 1751, by Benjamin Franklin and his supporters, who espoused his idea of practical, free, universal public education.

Reading levels

A broad-based measure of individual reading achievement, valid only when related to the reader’s age and the level of difficulty (or readability) of the material.

White citizens’ councils

Ad hoc groups of townspeople formed throughout the South in the 1950s to resist racial desegregation of schools and what they called the “mongrelization” of the Caucasian race.

Learning Cities and Regions

The learning city is an ideal, rather than a description of any actual place or places. It is an aspiration for the way the city might be better managed and manage itself in a complex world characterized by terms such as global and knowledge economy.

Lyman Beecher (1775–1863)

Charismatic American Presbyterian minister whose hold over the minds of so many Americans of his day preserved Protestant influence in American education for nearly a century.

Separation anxieties

A child’s irrational fears of separation from or abandonment by its parents. Not uncommon among young children attending preschool or kindergarten for the first time, separation anxieties usually provoke mysterious aches and other physical symptoms that preclude the child’s leaving home and attending school.

Excellence in Education programs

A series of programs established in 1982 by the U.S. Department of Education “to identify and publicly recognize unusually successful public schools...


The alteration, suppression or eradication by governmental or other authorities of materials and ideas they deem inappropriate.

Thematic teaching

An instructional approach that focuses on the study of a particular theme or topic, but indirectly forces students to study elements from a variety of traditional academic and scientific courses.

Labor Education

For many hundreds of thousands of people around the world, learning through their trade union has been an important, and occasionally, pivotal experience in their development and understanding as workers and citizens.