Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

American Bible Society

An organization formed in 1816 to promote the distribution of Bibles and other religious publications—a task it continues to perform to this day.

Jewish education

A wide range of education offered in a variety of about 600 independent and synagogue-related schools that cater to about 200,000 Jewish American children, or 20% of the Jewish school-age population.

University of Chicago

One of the most unique institutions of higher education in the United States, founded in Chicago in 1890 with $35 million from John D. Rockefeller and the leadership and vision of educator WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER.

Experiment in International Living (EIL)

A cultural exchange program that takes groups of eight to 10 students for a semester of studying and living in a foreign country.

Developmental age

The behavioral characteristics associated with a particular chronological age.

Elihu Yale (1649–1721)

English colonialadministrator who, between 1714 and 1721,bestowed so extensive a library of books andother gifts to the Collegiate School of Saybrook,Connecticut, that it changed its name to YaleCollege in 1718, two years after it moved toNew Haven.

Francis Wayland (1796–1865)

American educator and theologian who was one of the leaders in the reform of higher education during the first half of the 19th century.

Reading clues

A variety of elements in a written passage that indirectly suggest the meaning of a word, of a character’s personality or feelings or of story content and plot.

Standardized test

Any examination for which a norm and associated scale have been calculated on the basis of the exam’s results among a well-defined, statistically significant population sample.

Civil War

The war between the northern and southern states. Fought over four years, from 1861 to 1865, the war had far-reaching short- and long-range repercussions on American education.