A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (PARC decision)

A landmark 1971 U.S. Supreme Court case that extended universal public education laws to retarded children as a constitutional right.

Child-referenced test

A type of test that compares the child’s knowledge after instruction to what the child knew before.

New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor

A private group organized in 1843 to carry on mission work among New York City’s poor by offering religious services, prayer meetings, libraries, industrial classes and employment referral services.

Community college

A two-year, degreegranting public institution of post–secondary school education, designed to serve the needs of the local area or community.

Summer school

A formal semester of school or college held during the traditional summer vacation months, between the end of the previous school year and the beginning of the next.

James P. Comer M.D. (1934– )

American professor of child psychiatry and founding director of the Yale Child Study Center School Development Program, at Yale University.

North Dakota

The 39th state to enter the Union, in 1889. Missionaries opened the first school in the territory in 1818, and the territorial legislature made the first provisions for public education in the sparsely settled state in 1862.

Henry Barnard (1811–1900)

Pioneer American educator responsible for founding the public school systems of Connecticut, Rhode Island and Wisconsin.

Essentialism

A “BACK-TO-BASICS” educational movement started in the late 1920s by Teachers College Columbia University professor WILLIAM C. BAGLEY in response to growing neglect of traditional fields of study in public elementary and secondary schools.

Corrected test method

A common method of teaching spelling by asking students to spell words they have not studied before and giving them a master list with which to correct their own tests.

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