A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Articulation (program)

The meshing of course materials within each school grade (horizontal) and between grades (vertical). Effective horizontal articulation interrelates all courses within a curriculum to each other. TEAM TEACHING has proved an effective method of achieving horizontal articulation, by tying studies of every subject in each grade to each other. Thus, a teaching team would tie the study of ancient Egypt in history class, for example, to the study of plane and solid geometry in mathematics class, to the study of mechanical advantage in physics (science) class, to the study of hieroglyphics in language class and to the study of one- and two-dimensional drawing in art.
Effective vertical articulation permits students to progress academically from grade to grade smoothly, with no curricular overlap or gap or radical changes in teaching methods between the end of a course in one year and the beginning of the same course the following year. To achieve effective vertical articulation, some schools assign one teacher to the same group of students for two or more consecutive years.
Ineffective articulation within an individual school is usually the result of ineffectual administration and curriculum supervision. Excessive teacher absenteeism and introduction of substitute teachers also produces poor articulation. The most difficult vertical articulation to achieve is between schools—elementary and middle, middle and high school and (the most difficult of all) high school and college.

Discipline (subject)

A field of study, as in the discipline of mathematics or the discipline of English.

Natural history

The study of the development and growth of all natural organisms.

Declaration of the Rights of the Child

A document adopted unanimously in 1959 by the United Nations General Assembly, declaring every child entitled to certain rights, including a name and nationality, adequate housing, adequate health care and education.

Corrected test method

A common method of teaching spelling by asking students to spell words they have not studied before and giving them a master list with which to correct their own tests.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

A meritless, biasbased prediction whose eventual fulfillment stems from the motivation of the prophesier to prove his or her prediction or bias true.

Career ladders for teachers

A vertical scale of teacher job classifications offering increased pay, authority and professional recognition as the teacher progresses from trainee or apprenticeship level to master teacher.

San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez

A 1974 U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding the right of states to finance public school systems with local property taxes.

Adult Education and Nation-Building

The late President of Tanzania said in 1976 that, ‘‘Adult education is a highly political activity. Politicians are sometimes more aware of this fact than educators, and therefore they do not always welcome real adult education’’ (Nyerere, 1976).

African-American education

The schooling of American blacks, both within and without the mainstream educational establishment. Historically, the quality of education received by African Americans has been far below that offered whites.

Chancellor

Usually the president of a university or institution.

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