A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Instructional television (ITV)

A noncommercial, school- or teacher-run, closed-circuit television network within a school or college, which instructors may use intermittently to transmit audiovisual materials to groups of students in one or more classrooms or auditoria.

Listening

An essential language and communication skill consisting of hearing and then translating aural data into action. Basic to the acquisition of knowledge, listening is one of the first communicative skills learned by infants. Its development, however, depends largely on specific instructional techniques, first by parents and later by elementary school teachers.

I.Q.

The abbreviation and popularly used term for INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT,

Educational warranty

A special certificate issued to high school graduates assuring prospective employers that the bearer has the basic skills needed to enter the workforce.

Revolutionary War

The war in which the American colonies declared and won their independence from England.

Hawaii

The 50th state admitted to the Union, in 1959. A 1,500-mile-long chain of islands, the state has one of the poorest public education systems in the United States.

Alliteration

The repetition of consonant sounds in a series of consecutive words.

Abecedarian Project

A 28-year longitudinal study of 111 African-American families in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, to determine the effects of quality day care on medically healthy infants and preschool children who, because of their sociocultural and economic circumstances, were deemed to be demographically “at risk” of eventual failure at school and beyond.

Intelligence quotient

A measure of an individual’s “general ability” compared to others of the same age.

William Penn (1644–1718)

Quaker leader, founder of Pennsylvania and advocate of a religious toleration that permitted the establishment of schools throughout Pennsylvania early on.

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