A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Nathaniel Eaton (1609–1674)

English-born theologian who was named first president of Harvard College in 1637. Although he attended Cambridge University...

Adopt-a-School Program

A collaborative effort between local businesses and Chicago public schools to improve public school education and, in turn, improve the quality of the area’s workforce.

Visual impairment

In education, blindness or partial sightedness, with blindness defined as a condition requiring...

Delay of gratification

A not uncommon error of primary and secondary schoolteachers,

Children’s intelligence

The ability of children to acquire and retain concrete and abstract knowledge and understanding to deal with new situations and acquire more knowledge.

Talking typewriter

A curious, short-lived device that spelled out in sound as well as type the letters that children punched on a keyboard.

Speech

differentiateletters, syllables and words fromeach other.

Leadership

The ability to direct and influence the intellectual, emotional and physical behavior of others.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

A federal law that expanded protection for the disabled with respect to employment opportunities and public services...

Disadvantaged students

An imprecise category of intellectually and physically normal students whose economic and cultural circumstances are among the lowest in the United States.

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