A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Teacher turnover

The ratio of new teachers hired to those departing from a school or college staff.

University of Wisconsin

A pioneer institution of higher education in the area of public service and adult education through its extension services.

Annenberg Foundation

A charitable foundation established in 1989 by publishing-broadcasting magnate Walter H. Annenberg to underwrite a variety of educational projects.

Experience chart

A display, in early primary school, on which teachers record, in large, easyto-read letters...

Cumulation principle

A principle of teaching whereby the simplest materials are presented first, followed by materials of ever increasing complexity...

National testing

A controversial scheme to require all students in the United States to take a battery of standardized tests to measure levels of educational achievement. 

United States Department of Agriculture

An executive department of the government that conducts research, maintains service activities and administers regulatory laws in the broad field of agriculture.

Widmar v. Vincent

A U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 1981 affirming the constitutional right of student organizations at public colleges and universities to hold religious services on campus property.

William H. Seward (1801–1872)

Whig governor of New York State from 1839 to 1843, and an unsuccessful advocate of state support for religious schools and multilingual education in public schools. 

Thomas Bray (1656–1730)

English-born Anglican priest responsible for establishing the first lending libraries in the American colonies.

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