A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI)

The degree of success or failure of a specific instructional technique and program (treatment) for a student at a particular aptitude level.

Alexia

The inability to read because of brain damage.

Degree

A title usually awarded by colleges and universities to signify successful completion of extended studies in a particular subject or combination of subjects.

John Winthrop (1714–1779)

Americanborn heir to one of the most preeminent colonial families, and the most distinguished teacher, scholar and scientist of the colonial or provincial era.

John F. Kennedy (1917–1963)

Thirtyfifth president of the United States and fourth to be assassinated.

Reconstruction

The decade (approximately) following the Civil War, during which normal relations were restored between the Union and the secessionist Southern states.

West Virginia

The 35th state to enter the Union, in 1863, after its secession from Virginia, which had joined the Confederacy at the beginning of the Civil War.

Caldecott Medal

An annual award presented by the AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION to the finest illustrated book for children, as selected by a committee of librarians.

Plyler v. Doe

A historic 1982 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that public schools are constitutionally obliged to admit children of illegal aliens and provide them with tuition-free public education.

American universities abroad

A group of American colleges and universities either based overseas or operating overseas branch campuses of their U.S. facilities.

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