A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Roger Ascham (1515–1568)

English author of The Scholemaster (1570), the standard pedagogical text used by tutors and parents in the American colonies and in England to teach their sons during the 17th century.

Auditory discrimination

The ability to differentiate between the varying sounds and frequencies of vowels, consonants, syllables and words.

Case study

In education, a classical approach to understanding the possible causes of behavior by a student or student groups.

Grading on the curve

A controversial system of inflating or deflating student scores on a particular examination to match the normal distribution

Sputnik

The first artificial, Earth-orbiting satellite, launched into space on October 4, 1957, by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, then challenging the United States for global military, political and ideological supremacy.

Classroom management

The organization and techniques used by teachers to control students and assure desired learning results.

Newbery Medal

An award presented annually by the American Library Association for the most distinguished contribution by an American author to American literature for children, published in the United States during the preceding year.

Intelligent design

A theory that an as-yetunidentified guiding force directed the development of all living organisms, including humans.

Modular scheduling

A flexible method of arranging classroom time as a multiple of unconventionally small units of time.

Cloze procedure

A test of reading ability in which the student must guess missing words in a paragraph on the basis of its context.

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