A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Spelling

The correct naming or writing of the letters of a word.

Charles R. Van Hise (1857–1918)

American geologist, educator and university president who expanded the role of the public university to include adult education and service to the state.

Mathematics

In education, the science of numbers and all subtopics thereof, including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, trigonometry and calculus.

Educational psychology

The study of the relationships between psychology and formal instruction in school and the application of learning theories to teaching.

Part-time schooling

Formal instruction consisting of less than a conventional, full-time course load at secondary school or college.

Speech pathology

The study of communication disorders, including vocal, oral, auditory and comprehensive abnormalities. 

Concentration

In one sense, the ability to focus on the task at hand and ignore distractions.

Cotton Mather (1663–1728)

Puritan clergyman, author, scholar and a force behind the founding of Yale University.

California Educational Reform Act of 1983

An attempt to improve public school education by offering budgetary cash incentives to schools whose student achievement scores improved.

Southern Education Board

A group of northern philanthropists and southern reformers who sought at the turn of the 20th century to restore the economy and social structure of the South by establishing universal public education. 

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