A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur

A 1974 U.S. Supreme Court decision that the Cleveland Board of Education had violated the constitutional rights of women by requiring pregnant teachers to take unpaid maternity leaves several months before and after childbirth.

Boys Town

Originally, a pioneering residential institution for homeless, abandoned, neglected and emotionally troubled boys.

Preschool

Any formally or informally organized program designed to teach pre-kindergarten- aged children a variety of specific school-readiness skills.

Segregation

The involuntary separation of people according to various characteristics such 998 Secondary School Admission Test as race, religion, national origin, gender, physical or mental disadvantages or other definable differences.

Direct reading-thinking activity

A teaching technique associated with basal reading programs that encourages students to “think aloud” after reading silently, and thus enunciate the meaning of what they have read and how it relates to their own lives.

Adult Education and Nation-Building

The late President of Tanzania said in 1976 that, ‘‘Adult education is a highly political activity. Politicians are sometimes more aware of this fact than educators, and therefore they do not always welcome real adult education’’ (Nyerere, 1976).

Open education

A concept of preschool and kindergarten education conducted in an “open classroom,” or large teaching area, two or more times larger than traditional classrooms.

Amos Bronson Alcott (1799–1888)

Teacher, philosopher, author and eccentric visionary whose educational reforms liberalized American teaching methods and produced the first experiments in child-centered education.

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle

An adult education program that grew into one of the most important educational movements in American history...

Homework

Assigned academic work that students are expected to complete at home or during nonclass hours and return to the teacher within a specified time.

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