A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Metropolitan Achievement Tests

One of the most widely used batteries of standardized tests to measure student achievement in grades K through 12. There are six batteries of tests: Primer, for grades k-1.4; Primary I, for 1.5–2.4; Primary II, for 2.5–3.4; Elementary, for 3.5– 4.9; Intermediate, for 5.0–6.9; Advanced, for 7.0–9.5; and High School, for grades 9–13. The Primer measures reading and writing ability and ability to listen for sounds. The Primary I subtests are “Word Knowledge,” “Word Analysis,” “Reading,” “Mathematics Computation” and “Mathematics Concepts.” As the tests become more advanced, they add such subtests as “Mathematics Problem Solving,” “Science,” “Social Science” and “Spelling.” The high school battery measures achievement in language arts, social studies, mathematics and science. Published by the Psychological Corporation/ Harcourt Brace & Co., the tests last from about an hour to as long as 4½ hours, depending on grade level. Other widely used achievement tests include the California Achievement Test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST.

School District of the City of Grand Rapids v. Ball

A 1985 U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared it unconstitutional... 

Speech

differentiateletters, syllables and words fromeach other.

Directed reading activity

The teaching strategy used in most basal reading programs and consisting of five steps: reading readiness, silent reading, discussion and interpretation, skill development and practice, and follow-up activities.

Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925)

Austrian social philosopher and scientist who developed a spiritual and mystical doctrine called anthroposophy, an outgrowth of which was the Waldorf school movement and the development of more than 400 Waldorf schools in more than 30 nations, including about 20 schools in the United States.

Basic skills

Those intellectual functions taught in elementary school and deemed essential for independent functioning as an adult.

American Field Service

A voluntary organization that provides grants to American students to study abroad and to foreign students to study in the United States.

Achievement tests

Devices for measuring a student’s accumulated knowledge and skills.

Rainbow Curriculum

A controversial series of short texts introduced in New York City schools in the early 1990s to inculcate in children a spirit of acceptance of a wide range of people of different races, religions, ethnic backgrounds and sexual preferences.

Henry Peacham (1576–1643)

English author and teacher whose book The Compleat Gentlemen (1615) detailed a curriculum that became the standard for private schools and academies in the American colonies (and later the United States) through the early 20th century.

Grutter v. Bollinger

A U.S. Supreme Court decision in June 2003 upholding the principle of affirmative action in the University of Michigan Law School admissions process.

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